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Computational power is a key determinant in advanced computing mechanisms such as high performance, quantum, and cloud computing. Nation-states (and private companies as well) are engaged in a high-stakes race to increase indigenous computing capacity for a number of strategic reasons. This discussion document offers an overview of the advanced computing landscape, including the various types and applications of computational models and devices, and assesses the role and options for India to harness this pivotal technological resource. The document delves into geo-strategic developments related to advanced computing and provides an overview of the current computational capabilities of India, including the supercomputer programme, and the domestic quantum computing landscape in the country. The main takeaways from the document are:
1. High Performance and Quantum computing solutions remain the main market players in the Advanced Computing age.
2. The global High Performance and Quantum Computing landscape are restricted to a group of technologically advanced, financially sound states.
3. India needs to assess the pros and cons of different quantum computing technologies to start and develop its domestic quantum computing programme.
4. The computing landscape in India remains at its infancy with few supercomputers, developed as part of the national mission, and no state financed quantum computing programme (reliant only on public private partnerships till now).